Parsi Fish Vindaloo

 

 

 

 

I’ve always believed that birds of a feather ‘feed’ together. Otherwise there is no explaining why most of my father’s closest friends’ wives were excellent chefs and all their get-togethers were always about great food.

Vera Umrigar is a jewel among cooks. Wife, mom, petrol pump owner, she managed a spatula with the same fervour she did a broken axle. Her smoked ham, dotted with cloves and glazed with honey, her exquisite apricot soufflé, as frothy and festive as a wedding frock and her sugar-studded apple pies are memorable to me 20 years after I first feasted on them.

The families went to the Umrigar’s home in Lonavala for long weekends and the boot of the car was converted into a mobile freezer, piled high with everything from my mother’s vindaloo and pao bhaji to Vera’s dhansak and kheema cutlets, all frozen rock solid a week in advance to survive the drive. Any space leftover was meant for waffle machines, OK wafers and mom’s Balicao jars.

Whatever thawed first was demolished quickly and efficiently. We were lawn movers and there was no grass too tall.

The weekend rolled by, literally, as Vera’s Maharashtrian maid, togged up in a nine-yard sari, drawn between her legs like some Roman warrior, rolled puran polis to fill the tiny gaps between 4-course meals.

Let me tell you this. There is nothing, nothing quite like a puran poli straight off a hot tawa. Those cold chindis sold in shops are very sad.

The crisp top is paper-thin and the weight of a spoonful of ghee cracks it open like a pond of ice on a sunny day. Ghee meets warm jaggery in an eternal romance. My fingers would get all jammy as I tried to break off bits of poli and turn the pages of my Enid Blyton all at the same time. I pitied Fatty; all he got was cold tongue sandwiches.

Everyone knows the Goan Pork Vindaloo, but when Vera offered her mother’s recipe for a Parsi Fish Vindaloo, I was all ears. Parsi cuisine unites ancient Persian traditions with both Indian and British colonial ones. Sour Zereshk or barberries in Berry Pulao is Persian while Worcestershire sauce in Lagan no Saas is a British one.

“Parsi vindaloo? It’s not a prawn patia?” I ask incredulously.

Vera explains that there are many kinds of prawn patia, the classic sweet and spicy Parsi prawn dish, not pickle, less curry that’s served with dhan dal. “Some Patias are made with kadipatta, while others are not. Some have garam masala, others do not.”

Like all vindaloos, this one is also an Indian-Portuguese fusion. It contains red chilies, red wine vinegar (vin in Portuguese) and garlic (alho in Portuguese) and is sweet, spicy and sour. The vinegar and jaggery balance the spicy chillies.

So how is it different from a Goan Vindaloo?

Vera whispers conspiratorially. “It’s got lots of fresh kothmir in it and you eat it with hot Toor Dal Khichdi.

As you can guess by this point I’m lying in a pool of drool.

When Vera pulls the ground masala out of the fridge, its deep almost unreal red colour brings back a flood of memories. My Dad would always say that he could tell my mother and Vera’s vindaloo by the red colour.

Good vindaloo must have this flaming colour. Not the dull brown that so many inferior restaurant-vindaloos have.  So what’s the secret? How do you give the gravy such a deep red without synthetic colour or an overdose of chilies.

Vera uses dried Kashmiri chilies, but suggests you can also use bedgi. She insists you use fresh homemade tomato puree, processed in a food mill, also called a puran maker in India, not in a mixer.

When you blitz tomatoes they lose their red colour and turn pink.

She then proceeds to fry the masala in oil. “This dish needs oil ha? You can’t fry a masala without oil ok?”

I imagine someone trying to make vindaloo with non-stick, fat-free cooking spray.

I can’t help but giggle. Those days of excess, of ‘lagaooing’ and ‘enjjwaaaying’ good food are a thing of the 80s. Of showing up at your friends place at midnight and honking for kheema pao are gone. Everyone is caught up with immortality. If it weren’t for the Parsis, I really think there would be no majja in life.

“And Tara, add the chopped kothmir and the pomfret to the masala together so their flavours get into the gravy. Dhaniya is not a garnish. It’s part of the curry.”

She puts the steaming fish vindaloo on the table.

I will stop writing now.

I won’t describe it.

Just make it.

Be zindadil for a day.

Lagao.

Use dried red chillies and tomato puree for a bright color.

Vera Umrigar’s Parsi Fish Vindaloo

The Goan pork vindaloo is extremely well-known, but this tangy fish vindaloo is a gem that deserves a permanent place in your recipe collection. The flaming red colour is a red herring – it isn’t that spicy!

Make the tomato puree using bright red tomatoes and process them in a puran maker or a food mill. This way you will maintain a bright red colour.

Ingredients (Serves 4-5)

1 kg silver pomfret steaks (about 8 pieces plus head and tail)

For the masala:

15 red kashmiri or bedgi chillies with stalks removed, broken into bits

8-10 large cloves of peeled garlic

5 tsp cumin seeds

2 tsp red vinegar or to taste (kolahs or kalverts)

½ cup chopped red onions

4 cups fresh tomato puree

¼ cup crumbled jaggery or to taste

1 cup chopped fresh coriander leaves

¼-1/2 cup vegetable oil for cooking

Salt to taste

Method:

1. Grind the first 5 ingredients for the masala to a smooth, fine paste. This will take several minutes. Add a little water if required.

2. Heat oil in a large non-stick skillet on a medium flame.

3. Add the ground paste and cook, stirring frequently about 8-9 minutes. Scrape the bottom of the pan and the sides to prevent the spice paste from sticking to the bottom. When the oil begins to separate from the sides, stir in the tomato puree and continue to cook for 10 minutes on a medium flame until the mixture bubbles and thickens.

4. Add 1 tbsp of jaggery and 2 teaspoons of salt. Stir well.

5. Lower the flame and add the fish slices one at a time and the coriander leaves. Stir gently.

6. Cook until fish is tender.

7. Taste for salt and sweetness. Add more vinegar, jaggery and salt if required.

8. Serve with toor dal khichdi or plain white boiled rice.

 

PUNJABI BAINGAN BHARTA/FIRE ROASTED EGGPLANT WITH TOMATOES

THIS STYLE OF ROASTED AND MASHED EGGPLANT IS POPULAR ALL OVER INDIA AND A CLASSIC STYLE OF HOME COOKING EVERYWHERE AND POULAR IN DHABAS IN PUNJAB. IN HOME KITCHEN THE EGGPLANT IS NOT PUREED BUT COARSELY MASHED.

I ATE THIS DISH AT SEVERAL DHABAS IN BOTH PUNJAB AND CHANDIGARH AND WHILE THEY WERE ALL GOOD I PREFER THE ONES MADE AT HOME WHERE THE BULK OF THE DISH IS EGGPLANT SEASONED WITH A RESTRAINED AMOUNT OF MASALA.  A YELLOW DAL IS A GOOD ACCOMPANIMENT TO A BHARTA.

SERVES 6

3 400 GRAM PURPLE EGGPLANTS/AUBERGINE/ITALIAN EGGPLANTS

1 TEASPOON CUMIN SEEDS

2 DRIED RED KASHMIRI CHILLIES STALKED REMOVED

1 INCH PIECE OF CINNAMON

1 BLACK CARDAMOM

1 TEJPATTA OR DRIED BAY LEAF

4 TBSP VEGETABLE OIL

1/2 CUP FINELY CHOPPED RED ONION

2 TBSPNS GARLIC AND GINGER PASTE

1 CUP PLUM TOMATOES CHOPPED

1 TEASPOON TURMERIC

SALT TO TASTE

 

METHOD

ROAST THE EGGPLANT ON AN OPEN FLAME OR A CHARCOAL BARBEQUE UNTIL COMPLETELY CHARRED, SOFT AND TENDER. COOL THEN REMOVE CHARRED SKIN GENTLY AND DISCARD.  WASH EGGPLANT VERY LIGHTLY IN WATER AND DISCARD LARGER PATCHES OF SEEDS. RESERVE

HEAT OIL IN A LARGE NON STICK SKILLET AND ADD CINNAMON, BAY LEAF AND CARDAMOM AND SAUTE 1 MINUTE. REMOVE WITH SLOTTED SPOON. ADD THE RED CHILLIES AND CUMIN SEEDS AND SAUTE 1 MINUTE. ADD ONIONS AND SAUTE 2 MINUTE UNTIL SOFT AND OPAQUE. ADD TOMATOES AND SAUTE UNTIL PULPY AND SOFT 2-3 MINUTES.

ADD GARIC AND GINGER PASTE AND STIR WELL. SAUTE 2 MINUTES UNTIL FRAGRANT.

ADD TURMERIC, AND STIR WELL.  ADD THE EGGPLANT AND MASH COARSELY . ADD SALT TO TASTE.

GARNISH WITH FINELY CHOPPED CORIANDER OR CILANTRO LEAVES.

SERVE HOT WITH PARATHAS, KHULCHAS OR ROTI.

 

 

Amba Sasav/ sasaam-Mango Curry with Mustard

AMBÉ SASAV

Seasoned Mango Curry

6 servings

In Karwar, Karnataka the Kala Ishaad mango is used to prepare this mango curry, in other parts of the Konkan coast Ghontan, small sucking mangoes are preferred. Sasav in Konkani means mustard so it is the principal spice in this dish.

Raywal, Mayapuri, Dussheri and Rajbhog mangoes, with a more watery flesh also give the curry a good consistency. 

The pulp is squeezed off the seed, called ‘bata’ and left a little chunky, but if you prefer a smooth curry you can blend it. Traditionally the bata are returned to the curry and served as part of the portion over hot plain, boiled, white rice. 

In the Konkan, hot rice is often served with chilled curries such as sol or ambé sasav. The word saasam is mustard in Konkani.

Ingredients 

8 large over-ripe mangoes or 12-14 small sucking mangoes

1½ tsp salt or to taste 

Jaggery if required

Spice paste

2 tsp mustard seeds

6 dried red Kashmiri chillies, stalks and seeds removed (add more for a spicier curry)

6 tbsp grated fresh; or frozen, unsweetened coconut 

Tempering (optional)

1 teaspoon black mustard seeds

Pinch asafoetida

8 fresh green curry leaves torn

1.5 tbsp vegetable oil

Method 

Toast the whole spices and chillies for the spice paste in a dry skillet on high heat for 1 minute. 

Remove from heat, cool and grind to make a fine powder. 

Add the coconut and grind to a fine consistency. Reserve.

Peel the mangoes and place them in a mixing bowl with 1.5 cups of cold water.

Squeeze the pulp from the mangoes into the water in the bowl, till the seeds are bare. 

Remove and reserve the seeds if you plan to add them to the curry, otherwise discard them.

Stir the spice paste into the mango pulp and add the seeds, if desired. Do this manually. Do not blend in a mixer, this curry is meant to be chunky.

Heat vegetable oil in a small tempering spoon. Add asafoetida as well as mustard seeds and cook 60 seconds until the splutter and turn fragrant. Add curry leaves and cook 30 seconds. Add the mango curry and stir well. At this point you can cook the curry over the flame for 4-5 minutes or leave the mangoes raw.  If you cook the mangoes eat the curry hot. If you leave them raw chill the curry and serve with piping hot rice.

Add salt and jaggery to taste.

Cover and refrigerate for 2 hours. 

Serve cold with piping hot plain, boiled, white rice.

KASHMIRI PANDIT STYLE ROGAN JOSH-KASHMIRI MUTTON CURRY

KASHMIRI PANDIT STYLE ROGAN JOSH-KASHMIRI MUTTON CURRY

KASHMIRI PANDIT STYLE ROGAN JOSH-KASHMIRI MUTTON CURRY

Ingredients

There are many versions of this epic dish. This is the Kashmiri Pandit version and came to me via two Kashmiri pandit ladies, who I met on my trip to Kashmir. The use of Ratan Jyot was highly debated on social media so you can leave it if you prefer.

For more on the history, unusual ingredients, where to buy groceries and the Wazwaan version read my article here http://www.taradeshpande.in/rogan-josh-ghula…iri-mutton-curry/

For more pictures on the ingredients like ratan jot (pictured top of page here) mawal, pran and saffron please visit my instagram page @deshpandetara

Ratan Jyot is hard to find and some argue its health benefits. You can use Mawaal or some beet color if you prefer or nothing at all. Adding excess red chilli powder to obtain a red color will make the dish too spicy.

TRADITIONAL HINDU PANDIT VERSION

SERVES 5-6

1 kg mutton or lamb shoulder cut in pieces

FOR TEMPERING

2 tbsp mustard oil

2 tbspns ghee

1 black cardamom

3 green cardamom whole

2 inch cinnamon stick or dalchini

1 large dried bay leaf or tejpata

1/4 tsp asafetida or hing

FOR ROGAN JOSH MASALA

1 teaspoon aniseed powder (powdered saunf)

2 cups full fat plain yogurt or curd (not sour)

1-2 teaspoon freshly roasted and ground Kashmiri red chilli

1/4 cup of rattan jot optional

3 tbspns veg oil if using ratan jot

powder

Instructions

Rinse the lamb shoulder in stock pot of hot water. Drain completely. If using saute ratan jot in 3 tbspns vegetable oil until the color emerges. Add 1 cup water and boil until reduced to 1/4 cup. Discard ratan jot pieces and reserve liquid.

Heat mustard oil and ghee on a medium flame.

Add all the whole spices and cook until fragrant about 1 minute. Then add asafetida.

Add the lamb or mutton pieces and cook on high heat to sear the meat 3-4 minutes. Using tongs remove the meat and set aside on a plate.

Add yogurt, aniseed powder, red chilli and some salt. Stir well and cook on a medium flame until the yogurt splits, then comes together and releases its oil on the sides.

Return the meat to the yogurt mixture. Add the color liquid if using and a teaspoon of salt.

Toss well and cook on a slow flame until meat is tender or pressure cooker on medium heat for 2-3 whistles until meat is falling off the bone.

Add more water a little at a time during the cooking process if required. This is eaten with rice so you must have gravy.

Add more red chilli and salt as per your taste.

Serve warm with rice.

http://www.taradeshpande.in/kashmiri-pandit-style-rogan-josh-kashmiri-mutton-curry/

ROGAN JOSH: GHULAM WAZA’S KASHMIRI MUTTON CURRY

ROGAN JOSH: KASHMIRI MUTTON CURRY

ROGAN JOSH: KASHMIRI MUTTON CURRY

Ingredients

“bi-khūbī tā shavad Kashmīr mazkūr | bi-‘ālam nām-i nīkash bād mashhūr kunad daryūza kūh-i Pīr Panjāl | zi chatr-i daulatash rif‘at hama sāl “

As long as Kashmir is mentioned with good words, may it be renowned in the world. The Pir Panjal mountain seeks elevation from the parasol of his fortune, all year

-Kalim Kashani, 17th Century Persian Poet

On a trip to Srinagar last year I finally learned what goes into a Kashmiri Rogan Josh. And was I surprised.

No dish has bewildered me as much. It is one of India's most famous curries, but also offered in so many hodgepodge and wildly disparate versions in restaurants and online that it’s hard to know what an authentic Rogan Josh is. Maybe that shouldn't be surprising - with the violence in Kashmir (In the few days I was there a man with a grenade was arrested at the airport and, there was a shooting at a hotel and a gunfight between militants and the armed forces), there is a lot less 'sharing' of Kashmiri culture in the mainstream than there should be.

Kashmiri cooking traces its history to the 15th century, when Timur the Lame invaded India and accomplished woodcarvers, painters, weavers, architects and calligraphers and cooks migrated from Samarkand in today’s Uzbekistan, to the Kashmir valley. So too did expert cooks, known as Wazas.

The descendants of these cooks are now the master chefs of Kashmir and the elaborate feasts they prepare on special occasions came to be called Wazwaan. I had the good fortune to talk with Ghulam Mohammed Bhandari Waza, a renowned chef in Srinagar, with the assistance of his friend Arif Shah. Ghulam Mohammed's father and grandfather were also Wazas, but unhappily his son doesn't want to be one. Arif translated our conversations from Koshur to English and added that the younger generation don’t think the profession is given the respect it’s due. So many Kashmiri traditions, like the weavers of epic jamawar shawls, the wood workers of Khatamband, Ferozi and Pinjra kari and the makers of Wagu mats, have given up their trades as the years of violence in the valley have chased away tourists and with them demand for artisanal crafts.

It is crucial these authentic recipes are preserved and as I was lucky enough to get many of them including Dum Aloo and Gucchi Pulao I hope you will consider cooking them up.

Kashmir is a syncretic culture with myriad influences beginning with the trickle effects of the Persian Achaemenid invasions, followed by Alexander the Great's invasion of Punjab, the arrival of Turkish scholars, the Central Asians, those who ruled after Babur came to be called the Mughals, Kashmiri food is complex and beautiful and like its culture and crafts, an alloy welded by some of the world’s greatest warriors and civilizations.

While the name Rogan Josh is Persian, the techniques and ingredients involved are diverse. Roughan means "oil" in Persian, while josh means to boil. Interestingly the Muslim version of this dish involves boiling, while the Kashmiri Pandit (the Hindu Shaivites of Kashmir) recipe involves searing and braising. There is undoubtedly an Indian influence in the use of ghee and a large number of spices. Some of the ingredients such as Alkanet are of Mediterranean origin, Mawal or Cockscombe flower, it is argued is of African origin.

Facts I learnt about Rogan Josh (please send me an email or tweet if you disagree)

• There are 2 versions of Rogan Josh The Hindu Kashmiri Pandit version, which is more easily found on the internet and the Muslim version, which I obtained from Ghulam Waza. You will be surprised how different the two are and even more how awful the fake versions served in restaurants are.

• Rogan Josh is also made with chicken. You will find a good recipe for it in a book called Wazwaan by Khan Mohammed Sharief Waza and his brothers.

• The Pandit version does not use garlic and onions while the Muslim version uses Kashmir pearl garlic and shallots called pran (see grocery list below).

• The Pandit version uses dried ginger powder called sunth.

• The Pandit version uses yogurt the Muslim version doesn't.

• The ideal meat is mutton and if unavailable lamb. The best and traditional cut is the shoulder for the Kashmiri Pandit version. The Muslim version often uses meaty goat ribs also called champh.

• Several natural colouring agents unique to Kashmir are employed. Mawal or red cockscomb flower in the Wazwaan version, and rattan jot, a kind of wooden peel known as alkanet root or Alkanna tinctoria in the Pandit preparation. Saffron is used in the Muslim version and alters the taste because saffron unlike Mawal and Rattanjot has a strong flavour.

• Tomato is incorrectly used as a substitute when Mawal and Rattanjot are not available. No authentic version of Rogan Josh I ate or saw being cooked in Kashmir has tomatoes. Kashmiri chilli is also added in excess sometimes to produce a red color. This is incorrect because Rogan Josh is not a burn your tongue off dish. If neither are available to you I would suggest you use beet color as you might for a red velvet cake.

• In a Wazwaan the traditional Muslim meal, it is always the Muslim version of Rogan Josh with onions and garlic that is served.

• The Hindu version uses aniseed and asafetida or hing to replace garlic.

• The Muslim version uses ghee, the Hindu version also uses ghee and sometimes mustard oil.

• Both use dried Kashmiri chillies.

• Rogan Josh is served with rice.

• Rogan Josh has both a distinct color and aroma that you know instantly when the dish is placed before you. Kashmiri food places great importance on the sense of smell whether it is Haak or Gucchi Pulao the aroma is as distinct as the color and flavor. My piece on Kashmiri Haak-http://www.taradeshpande.in/kashmiri-haak/

Much of Kashmiri cooking relies on a fragrant mutton stock. I was surprised to note that Dum Aloo and Gucchi Pulao are prepared with mutton stock. The Dum Aloo served by restaurants is a far cry from the version made by Waza Ghulam and the technique for Gucchi Pulao is completely different from anything I’ve eaten before. Unlike the Kashmiri Pandits, the Waza's donot employ the technique of 'tadka' or tempering (throwing whole spices into hot oil) as much. A critical difference.

Ghulam Waza was quick to point out that in the old days Gucchi pulao was never a part of a Wazwaan. But many people insist on it now because Gucchi, a variety of Kashmiri morels are exorbitantly expensive and including them on a menu is a status symbol. A full Wazwaan can have as many as 25 courses but in 2017 the J&K government limited the numbers of courses to 7, banned the use of fire crackers and loudspeakers on account of air and sound pollution at weddings and the purchase of dry fruits sweets to be distributed with wedding cards to curtail the huge quantities food at weddings that wound up in dustbins.

Enjoy the Rogan Josh recipe. Dum Aloo, Gucchi Pulao and the Kashmiri Pandit version of Rogan Josh to follow soon.

GROCERY LIST

• Ratanjot- If you buy Alkanet check on the expiry date. In humid weather it goes bad quickly and loses color.

https://www.amazon.in/Neeraj-Traders-Ratanjot-Root-100/dp/B0731YWB4K/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1529141012&sr=8-1&keywords=ratan+jot

Mawal of dried cockscombe flower comes in large quantities. You maybe better off buying the concentrated powder. If unavailable use beet powder.

• https://www.kashmirbox.com/dried-cockscomb-flower-powder-mawal-200gmhtml

• A Kashmiri saffron I have enjoyed using for various reasons including that it is Mogra (taken from the stamen) and of single origin- many Kashmiri saffron are blended with Iranian saffron.

• https://www.amazon.in/gp/product/B01DQHWL32/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s01?ie=UTF8&psc=1

• There are several kinds of Kashmiri garlic. The version in this recipe is single clove mountain garlic which is much more potent then regular garlic. If you don't have access use twice the quantity of regular garlic cloves.

• https://www.amazon.in/Naturally-Yours-Himalayan-Single-Garlic/dp/B00VJRDWK8/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1529142519&sr=8-2&keywords=kashmir+garlic

• Kashmiri shallots can also be used in French cuisine quite satisfactorily. Keep them dry and refrigerated. In my experience a humid climate has a detrimental effect on them.

• http://kashmirkit.com/pure-natural-kashmiri-shallot-pran-289.html

Kashmir Morels can be substituted with morels from the USA or France

https://www.amazon.in/Keynote-Morel-Mushrooms-Morels-without/dp/B071GPXMHL/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&qid=1529219223&sr=8-4&keywords=kashmir+mushroom

OR

https://www.amazon.com/Dried-Morels-Mushrooms-Life-Gourmet/dp/B0071GX2R4/ref=sr_1_5_s_it?s=grocery&ie=UTF8&qid=1529219290&sr=1-5&keywords=dried%2Bmorels%2Bmushrooms&th=1

For more pictures from my Kashmir trip and the ingredients that go into Rogan Josh like Pran paste and Mawal

please visit my instagram page @deshpandetara

TRADITIONAL MUSLIM VERSION OF ROGAN JOSH BY GHULAM MOHAMMED BHANDARI WAZA

SERVES 6

FOR THE STOCK

1 KG MUTTON RIBS OR CHAMPH

3 PEARL KASHMIR PEARL GARLIC CLOVES PEELED, LIGHTLY BASHED OR 6-8 REGULAR PEELED CLOVES

2 PIECES OF BLACK CARDAMOM

3 PIECES OF GREEN CARDAMOM WHOLE

3 PIECES OF CLOVES

3 PIECES OF CINNAMON ABOUT 2 INCHES

FOR THE KASHMIRI CHILLI PASTE

8 DRIED KASHMIRI CHILLIES, STALKS AND SEEDS REMOVED

FOR THE ROGAN JOSH PASTE

6 PRAN OR KASHMIRI SHALLOTS PEELED AND CHOPPED

2 TBSPNS GHEE

1/2 CUP VEGETABLE OIL

FOR THE COLOR

50 GMS DRIED MAWAL FLOWERS

8 STRANDS SAFFRON CRUSHED WITH A MORTAR AND PESTLE

1/2 TEASPOON GROUND TURMERIC POWDER

FOR THE GARNISH

1 PEELED GREEN CARDAMOM POD SEEDS FINELY GROUND

SALT TO TASTE

Instructions

Heat 1 liter water on the fire and boil the mawal flowers until you have a bright red color and the water is down to 1/2 cup of liquid. Drain and reserve this liquid.

Put 1 Kg mutton or ribs (champh) in 2 liters of room temperature water and boil it on a low flame for 5 minutes. Strain the mutton out and discard the remaining water. This helps to soften and clean the mutton.

Put 2 litres of water and the strained mutton into the same stock pot with the garlic, black and green cardamom, cloves, cinnamon and 1 teaspoon salt.

Boil this for 30 mins on a high flame. Do not steam the mutton or use a pressure cooker, it has to be boiled on high heat with a loose lid over the vessel.

Strain out the mutton pieces from the stock and filter entire stock through a piece of muslin cloth known as peera cloth in Kashmiri or use a fine steel strainer.

Reserve the ribs or meat pieces on a plate and discard all the spices.

Heat oil in a skillet on medium flame and saute the pran or shallots in ghee until deep golden and soft.

Use a little mutton stock and grind these onions to a smooth paste.

Boil the red chillies in 1 cup of water until water is mostly evaporated. Drain and grind chillies to a smooth paste.

Add the chilli and pran paste to the stock. Add 1/2 teaspoon turmeric and the mawal liquid concentrate. Return ribs to stock and cook on a medium flame without a lid until stock begins to thicken.

Stir in the saffron.

Cook this enriched stock until mutton is tender and gravy thick. Adjust salt to taste

Just before serving sprinkle with a little ground cardamom.

http://www.taradeshpande.in/rogan-josh-ghulam-wazas-kashmiri-mutton-curry/

CHICKEN KADAI GHAR KA KHANA

CHICKEN KADAI

CHICKEN KADAI

Ingredients

THERE ARE MANY VERSIONS OF CHICKEN KADAI. THIS ONE IS EASY AND HAS A WARM COMFORTING FLAVOR. ON A COLD DAY IN NYC THIS WAS A GREAT DISH TO EAT FOR DINNER. MAKE AN EXTRA LARGE BATCH AND USE PANEER FOR VEGETARIANS, TOFU FOR VEGANS.

SERVE 6 WITH RICE OR ROTIS

500 GRAMS CHICKEN PIECES WITH BONE, SKINLESS OR PANEER OR EXTRA FIRM TOFU CUBED

2 GREEN PEPPERS OR CAPSICUM, WASHED STEM AND SEED REMOVED DICED INTO 2 INCH PIECES

50 GRAM WHITE ONION CUT INTO 4-5 PIECES

250 GRAMS ONIONS PEELED AND QUARTERED

250 GRAMS TOMATOES QUARTERED

1.5 TBSP GARLIC PASTE

1.5 TBSP GINGER PASTE

1 TBSP FRESHLY ROASTED AND POWDERED CUMIN SEEDS

1/2 TEASPOON TURMERIC POWDER

1/2 TSP CAYENNE PEPPER

1/2 TEASPOON JAGGERY OR SUGAR

SALT TO TASTE

FOR TEMPERING

6 TBSP VEGETABLE OIL

3 INCH STICK CINNAMON

1 BADI ELAICHI OR LARGE BLACK CARDAMOM

1 LARGE DRIED BAY LEAF OR TEJPATTA

Instructions

PUREE ONIONS, GARLIC, CUMIN POWDER, TURMERIC AND CAYENNE AND 1 TSP SALT TO A SMOOTH PASTE.

HEAT OIL IN A LARGE, DEEP SKILLET. ADD ALL THE WHOLE SPICES AND COOK ONE MINUTE UNTIL FRAGRANT.

ADD TOMATO ONION PASTE AND COOK DOWN ON A SLOW TO MEDIUM FLAME UNTIL REDUCED TO HALF ITS VOLUME. YOU CAN COVER THE COOKING POT WITH A LID LEAVING IT A LITTLE OPEN TO ALLOW STEAM TO ESCAPE. AS THE MIXTURE COOKS IT MAY BUBBLE AND SPIT. STIR FROM TIME TO TIME.

ADD GARLIC AND GINGER AND THEN CAPSICUM AND COARSELY CUT ONION AND CONTINUE TO COOK ANOTHER 25 MINUTES UNTIL MIXTURE IS VERY DRY AND OIL BEGINS TO LEAVE THE SIDES.

ADD CHICKEN AND RAISE FLAME TO HIGH. TOSS CHICKEN IN MASALA TO SEAL THE JUICES. THEN REDUCE FLAME. ADD ONE CUP OF WATER AND COOK CHICKEN ON A VERY SLOW FLAME UNTIL TENDER. YOU CAN ALSO PRESSURE COOKER THE CHICKEN FOR ONE WHISTLE. IF USING PANEER OR TOFU COMPLETE MAKING THE GRAVY BEFORE YOU ADD THE PANEER OR TOFU AS IT DOESN'T NEED MUCH COOKING.

ADD MORE WATER TO GET A GRAVY THE CONSISTENCY YOU PREFER. IF YOU PLAN TO EAT IT WITH RICE YOU WILL NEED MORE WATER, FOR ROTIS A DRIER GRAVY.

ADD SALT AND SUGAR TO TASTE.

SERVE HOT.

http://www.taradeshpande.in/chicken-kadai-ghar-ka-khana/